Pontcysyllte Aqueduct

Wales has an incredible history – how will you see it?

It all starts with a set of human teeth found more than 200,000 years ago. There weren’t many people in Wales during the Ice Ages, but the earliest major civilisations in one of the proudest countries you’ll ever visit, experiencing some extraordinary – and often turbulent – goings-on.

Stomp up a hill in Aberystwyth or into the valleys of Brecon Beacons to observe the earliest Roman defensive hill forts, and then take your pick from an astonishing range of castles to find out about the rampages and invasions of the subsequent centuries.

Want to follow in royal footsteps?

Ariel view of Beaumaris Castle

Visit Beaumaris Castle, Edward I’s precise concentric design of the 13th century, for a symbol of the brutal battles between the English and Welsh.

Cilgerran, in the Teifi Valley, is a countryside romantic ruin full of character, revived by Edward III in anticipation of a French invasion but ultimately battered by Owain Glyndŵr, the last Welshman to hold the title of the Prince of Wales. Glyndŵr’s fearsome struggle against the English at the start of the 15th century – it ended when he disappeared in 1412, but he was never captured – leaves him as one of Britain’s most mysterious and enduring legends.

A view of Offas Dyke on a sunny summer day

Follow sections of Glyndŵr's Way, the 135 mile footpath at the heart of the country, made to honour the 600th anniversary of his uprising, for breathtaking scenery and the sort of rambles summer is made for. It’s one of three major trails, almost interlinking with Offa’s Dyke, the footpath between the Severn Estuary and the idyllic villages of the north, named after the ancient border created by Mercian kings.

And then there’s the spectacular seaside route of the Pembrokeshire Coast Path, the 186-mile coastline with some of the finest beaches in the world and the boundless natural splendour of a landscape dotted with cliff top views and thriving forests.

A revolution of development

Old mining machinery at Big Pit

The roar of industry is a key part of any telling of the history of Wales. From valleys producing lucrative supplies of limestone and ore during the Industrial Revolution to the peak of coal mining little more than a century ago, it’s an immense part of the country’s past which will never be forgotten.

It’s hard to think of many experiences as a trip to one of the old mines – visit Big Pit, the National Coal Mining Museum, the abandoned Silver Mountain Experience or the quarry home of the National Slate Museum to see authentic, inspiring living history.

Let history do the driving

Narrow boat on Pontcysyllte Aqueduct

Try seeing this amazing land from different angles aboard various forms of transport: the World Heritage Site of the Pontcysyllte Aqueduct and Canal is all about canals and boat rides under huge gorges, whereas the Narrow Gauge Steam Train tracks across the country – powered by historic engines and carriages – are a great way to see the countryside in style, often scaling mountains and allowing you to stop off wherever you please. National Museum Cardiff is both a wonderful venue and a place where objects move from dinosaurs to modern art. And St David’s Day, in March, is a shimmering celebration of a nation’s heritage.